Left photo (© François-Xavier Joly): bags of natural rubbish next to standard materials (paper and wooden sticks) on an experimental plot in a German forest.
Graph at right: decomposition rate of natural litter as a function of decomposition rate of standard materials in each plot studied (one point per plot) in different forests in Finland, Poland, Germany, Romania, Italy and Spain (one color by country).
There is no relationship between the two measurements as indicated by the dotted line (the slight slope is not statistically significant). In other words, the decomposition of natural litter generated within each plot cannot be predicted based on the decomposition of standard materials that are identical in all plots.
The diversity of organisms that live invisible to our eyes in the soil has long been ignored. These soil organisms survive primarily on plant waste, such as dead leaves in the fall, changing this up organic (Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry concerned with the description and study of a large section…) He died in Carbon Dioxide (Carbon dioxide, commonly known as carbon dioxide or carbon dioxide, is …) And nutrients that become available to plants again. This is amazing Recycling (Recycling is the process of treating industrial waste and household waste that…) Waste, which is well controlled by nature and poorly replicated by human societies, is a major driver of the carbon cycle planetary (The planet designates a mobile mechanical group, representing the solar system…).
With approximately 60 gigatons of carbon emitted each year from all terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere via decomposition, 6 times more than human activities, this key ecosystem process is extensively studied by scientists. However, although there are more than tens of thousands of existing studies on this topic, there are still significant uncertainties regarding the relative role of different risk factors. control (The words control can have several meanings. It can be used as a synonym for check, or …) from decomposition. In particular, it has recently been suggested that the importance of regional climate – a settings (A parameter in a broad sense is an element of information that must be considered…) A key to modeling the carbon cycle – vastly overestimated by ignoring the variability of environmental conditions at very small spatial scales.
A natural litter layer on the floor of a mixed oak and pine forest on an experimental plot in Spain.
© François-Xavier Joly
The FunDivEUROPE system and its network of more than 200 forest plots along a large climatic slope from Finland to Spain were created as part of a large-scale European project with 27 partners, including the Center for the Environment. functional (In mathematics, the term functional refers to certain functions….) and scalable (CEFE – University (A university is an institution of higher education whose purpose is…) Montpellier/CNRS/EPHE/IRD). It provides the ideal framework for investigating the relative importance of different degradation control factors.
With three parallel, coordinated experiments, including one at CEFE Experimental Field, the researchers hypothesized that decomposition of litter from all plots, identified in a shared garden on one side, and environmental factors specific to each plot, characterized by decomposition of standard materials On site On the one hand, it will make it possible to predict the decomposition of natural litter On site. But that wasn’t the case: the rate of decomposition of standard substances varies in full (complete or fully automatic, or by pattern completion or …) Independent of the decomposing natural rubbish side by side in forest cuttings across Europe. Thus, these parallel experiments were able to demonstrate that regional climate is indeed a major control factor, both direct and indirect across Vegetation (Vegetation is the collection of wild or cultivated plants (plants) that…) and soil organisms that have adapted to these climatic conditions.
Two main conclusions follow from this: First, confirming the important role of regional climate is good news for modeling approaches aimed at better understanding the impact of climate change on the carbon cycle. Second, it is necessary to take precautions with regard to findings based on the use of standard materials—such as tea bags or extracts—that are increasingly prevalent in large-scale decomposition studies, because these materials are divorced from the evolutionary context in which both plants and decomposers adapted to these resources.
Experimental plot in a mixed forest in Italy (left) and in a monotyped spruce forest in Finland.
© Stefan Huttensfeller
Solving the complex role of climate in litter decomposition Written by François-Xavier Joly, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, and Stephan Huttenschfeller, published in nature and its evolution On January 9, 2023.
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