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Are there “up” and “down” in space?

Are there “up” and “down” in space?

Although the space is huge, it is far from empty. There are countless numbers of scattered atoms, subatomic particles, electromagnetic fields, dust, molecules, large amounts of gases and much more. In fact, matter and celestial bodies are present everywhere on a microscopic scale in the distances between the twelve planets of the solar system. According to Albert Einstein's theory of relativity, direction is determined by how spacetime is curved due to the presence of mass. In other words, it always depends on the observer's position and motion, but it also depends on the distribution of mass in space.

The boundary separating Earth from space is called the Kármán line. Its name goes back to the physicist Theodor von Kármán, who determined the altitude where Earth's atmosphere Disappears. Taking into account the Kármán line, there are approximately 100 kilometers between Earth and space starting at sea level. Beyond this limit, spacecraft can no longer maintain their orbit. The Karman line is a theoretical and approximate limit. The boundaries of Earth's atmosphere extend much further into space, and the true distance between Earth and space is no longer the same. For comparison, the limits are set at 80 kilometers by NASA and 120 kilometers by the International Aeronautical Federation.

Space is the void that extends (…)

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