In the universe, almost all beings are in motion. From comets and asteroids to stars, planets, galaxies and even galaxy clusters, all of these objects are constantly in motion. This is also the case for the Earth, which, in addition to its movement around the Sun, also rotates around itself. What are the speeds of these movements?
The earth is in constant motion. As it revolves around the sun, the earth also rotates on its axis. So what is the speed of the earth moving? In other words, how fast does it spin around its axis and how fast does it spin around the sun? Going forward, how fast does the Solar System orbit the Milky Way?
The Earth rotates once every 24 hours (or, to be precise, every 23 hours 56 minutes and 4 seconds). The circumference of the Earth is 40,070 kilometers, so when you divide the distance by the time, that gives a rotational speed of 1,670 kilometers per hour. The Earth revolves around the Sun at a speed of approximately 110,000 km/h. Astrophysicists determine this by taking the distance the Earth travels around the sun and dividing it by the time it takes the Earth to complete an orbit (about 365 days).
An animation showing the Earth’s rotation and revolution:
Earth, the Solar System, and the Milky Way: Moving Objects
To calculate the distance between the Earth and the Sun, simply determine the circumference of the circle. We know that the Earth is located, on average, about 149.6 million kilometers from the Sun, and we know that it generally moves in a circular path (it’s actually more elliptical, but easier to do. Equate with a circle). This distance between the Sun and the Earth is the radius of the circle. To get the circumference of this circle, the equation is 2 * pi * radius or 2 * 3.14 * 149.6 million km. Once the circumference (the distance the Earth travels around the sun in orbit) is calculated, its orbital velocity can be determined.
The solar system, which includes our sun and all the bodies that revolve around it, is also in motion; It is located in one of the arms of the Milky Way galaxy that orbits around the galactic center. Astronomers know that the Milky Way’s arm revolves around the center of a galaxy based on observations from other stars. If very distant stars appear to be moving, it is because the solar system is moving relative to the relative position of these distant stars.
A video detailing the movement of the solar system around the galactic center:
By studying the motions of other stars relative to the Sun, astrophysicists have determined that the Solar System orbits around the center of the Milky Way at about 720,000 km/h. Then there is the entire Milky Way, which is pulled in different directions by other massive structures, such as other galaxies and galaxy clusters. Just as researchers can tell that the Solar System is moving based on the relative motion of other stars, they can use the relative motion of other galaxies to determine how fast the Milky Way is moving through the universe.
Speeds and feelings
Although everything is moving all the time, living things on the surface of the earth do not feel it for the same reason that passengers on the plane do not feel the speed during flight either. When the plane takes off, passengers feel the acceleration of the plane as it accelerates on the runway and takes off; This feeling of weight is caused by the change in the speed of the aircraft. But once the plane flies at an altitude, the passengers will not feel the speed because the speed does not change.
Passengers will not feel the speed because they are actually moving at the same speed and in the same direction as the plane. There is no relative movement. All passengers sitting in the plane move at the same speed as the plane itself. The only way passengers can notice their own movement and the movement of the plane is to look out the window at the rolling landscape. For humans on Earth, they do not feel that the Earth is moving around the Sun because they are also orbiting around the Sun at the same speed.