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L'illustration de cet artiste montre le premier visiteur interstellaire identifié, 1I/'Oumuamua, découvert en 2017. L'objet capricieux s'est balancé à moins de 24 millions de kilomètres du Soleil avant de sortir du Système solaire. 1I/'Oumuamua défie encore toute simple catégorisation. Il ne se comportait pas comme une comète et avait une variété de caractéristiques inhabituelles. Comme la rotation complexe de l'objet a rendu difficile la détermination de la forme exacte, il existe de nombreux modèles de ce à quoi il pourrait ressembler. © Nasa, ESA et J. Olmsted et F. Summers (STScI)

The Webb Space Telescope will be on the lookout for interstellar objects passing through the solar system

One of the first disks of planetary debris discovered in 1983 byInfrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) around the four stars vega, Beta Picturesand Fomalhaut and Epsilon Iridani To the protoplanetary discs studied with ALMA through observations Spitzer And the Hubbleastronomy Infrared and millimeter strongly in confirming that the phenomenon of planet formation was very frequent in Milky Way and according to the methods which, in general, were those developed in the cosmogony models of the solar system.

However, we still have a lot to learn, not least because planetary scientists don’t fully understand the exact chemical processes involved in planet formation. They also want to know if there is anything special about the way our planets were formed around our planet the sun. Of course, we already have indications with the instruments developed by noosphere, but we would like to know more, despite the fact that we are not very far from being able to send a probe to a nearby planetary system, such as the Proxima Centaurifor more information.

However, the detection of objects of interstellar origin clearly 1 I / ‘Oumuamuain 2017, and 2 I / BorisovIn 2018, the situation has clearly changed, especially since he arrived at Lagrange Point L2 earth and sun telescope James Webb.

Tropical Characteristics ofأوOumuamua And Borisov is clearly making it up stars who were expelled from their planetary system in the Milky Way and are certainly the top of a populationinterstellar objects They often cross the solar system and are, in a way, memories of a formationouter planets Elsewhere in galaxy. potentially chatty memoirs of exobiologists studying the possible manifestation of life elsewhere than in the solar system using, for example, Mars and Europe.

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In this short film, we tell you the story of the interstellar comet 2I / Borisov. A story that begins, for us Earthlings, at the end of August 2019 when we first looked at it, but it started tens or hundreds of millions of years ago, or even more… because we don’t yet know the age of this being from somewhere else. © Futura

Infrared to read interstellar memory

However, this is what Martin Cordiner just announced in a press release from NASAPrincipal Investigator of the program Webb’s goal of opportunity : ” sensitivity and strength web It now offers us an unprecedented opportunity to study the chemical composition of these interstellar bodies and learn more about their nature: where they come from, how they were made, and what they can tell us about the conditions in their parent systems. »

Obviously for this astrophysicist The Goddard Space Flight Center From NASA in Greenbelt, Maryland: “ Being able to study one of them and discover its composition – to see material from another planetary system up close – is truly incredible. ”, and he and his team are preparing to study in the infrared using Webb in the near future several interstellar objects navigating according to orbiting My cut in the solar system, and they’ll only visit it once.

2I/Borisov looks a lot like a comet, but 1I/’Oumuamua wasn’t like that at all. This indicates that we are on the verge of making fascinating discoveries about the diversity of planetary systems. Martin Cordner and his colleagues want to know this for sure and for this they will use two James Webb devices operating in series in the near and mid-infrared range, the NIRSpec and MIRI.

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According to a NASA press release, NIRSpec will be used to analyze the chemical composition of Gas These can be emitted by interstellar objects close to the Sun, to be able to highlight the spectral signature of molecules specific substances such as water and methanol, formaldehydeThe satiateThe Carbon Monoxide and methane. Mary (medium infrared instrument)on the other hand, would rather provide information on thermal processes associated with particles Solidsuch as grains of dust and even gravel.

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