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La mythique scène de Star Wars. © Lucasfilm

Star Wars Tatooine formation simulated on PC

Dozens of exoplanets have been discovered where we should be able to observe double sunsets in recent years in the Milky Way using the late Kepler satellite. We’ve been trying to model the formation of these “Tatooines” for some time and two astrophysicists have just gotten new results about it, giving credence to the idea that star Wars It’s not just science fiction, it’s just fantasy.

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[EN VIDÉO] A protoplanetary disk torn apart by its three stars
Space shelters contain many micro-displays such as violent events. This is evidenced by observations made with the help of VLT and Alma, which revealed behind the scenes the birth of the planets.

Already in 2008,astronomer Karl Stapelfeldt Let it be known in a video of NASA He and his colleagues found indirect signs of the presence of rocky planets commitment to stars doubles. This is the data from the notes inInfrared Satellites Spitzer This enables researchers to achieve this conclusion. the sensors of the instrument in orbiting It clearly showed the presence of dust due to the collisions between them asteroids.

However, who said that asteroids almost also say – according to already well-developed models at the time of the formation of planets around one star, see the video below in the case of the solar system – specifically the presence of rocky exoplanets that left behind a disk of debris after their birth. We observe such disks around the stars Fomalhaut and β Pictoris for example, stars that we know have Exoplanets since we filmed them live.

mojo Modeling the origin of the underground planetsModeling the origin of the Jovian planets, is a research project that has resulted in a series of videos presenting the theory of the origin of the solar system and in particular the gas giants. We owe them to two famous specialists, Alessandro Morbidelli and Shaun Raymond. This theory can be transformed to form exoplanets. For a fairly accurate French translation, click the white rectangle at the bottom right. The English translation should then appear. Then click on the nut to the right of the rectangle, then click on “Subtitles” and finally on “Translate automatically”. Choose “French”. © Lawrence Honorat

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A planetary formation prevented by chaos?

The discovery was not straightforward because one could ask the question about the stability of protoplanetary discs that may surround the individual stars that are part of Binary system Especially. Moreover, could these discs allow processes known in the case of the solar system to pass from grains of dust that clump to form pebbles, to embryos Planets with a diameter greater than 1000 km accumulation Planetesimals that are at least 10 km in diameter? We know that in Celestial mechanics of chaotic phenomena It may arise just by considering the case of at least three celestial bodies, each subject to fields gravity others.

The existence of exoplanets, some of them are probably habitable to the point that we can observe them double sunset, However it was later confirmed by other observations eye Humanity in orbit: NASA’s exoplanet hunter named Kepler, unfortunately closed since then, just as in the case Spitzer.

Habitable planet with double sunset Soleil, that’s exactly what star Wars organized with The famous planet Tatooine. Today, while we know that such a scene is no longer science fiction, astrophysicists They pass on learned forms Digital From the origins of the planets of the solar system to the state of the protoplanetary disks associated with double stars.

We can be convinced of this with an open access publication in the famous newspaper Astronomy and astrophysicss, Job offer Roman Rafikov from the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at the University of Cambridge, and is also a member ofInstitute of Advanced Studies At Princeton, the work was done in collaboration with Kidron Silsby From the Max Institute plank Extraterrestrial physics.

The 2008 NASA video, unfortunately of poor quality, in which Karl Stapelfelt announced Spitzer’s discovery of the existence of Tatooine. For a fairly accurate French translation, click the white rectangle at the bottom right. The English translation should then appear. Then click on the nut to the right of the rectangle, then click on “Subtitles” and finally on “Translate automatically”. Choose “French”. © Jet Propulsion LaboratoryNASA

The exoplanets of Alpha Centauri AB?

The two astrophysicists considered the case of double stars in a configuration similar to that of Alpha Centauri A and B, the two Sun-like stars (classes G and K) that make up the binary star Alpha Centauri AB, star system Closest to the solar system. Located at 4.37 light years from the Sun, but we don’t yet know if exoplanets exist around one of these stars. Alpha Centauri AB appears to form a triple system with lips of a woman Alpha Centauri C, better known as Proxima Centauri It actually appears to have two exoplanets.

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Therefore, the simulations relate to a system with two solar-type stars, one of which will replace the Sun and the other orbiting the former instead ofUranus, with a revolution period of nearly 100 years. Contains a protoplanetary disk Gas There is dust in the form of silicate, carbon or icy around one of these stars.

In the case of the emergence of a planetary universe such as the solar system, then movements Particles, dust, gravel, rocks, etc. Slow enough that snowball-type collisions prevail over those where collisions break apart objects and thus prevent growth in the direction of planetary embryos.

But in the case of double systems, the gravitational perturbations of the stars move the disks of the protoplanets as if one were hitting snow eggs so that speeds Relativistic collisions are higher.

Simulations finally show that the emergence of embryos is only possible if planet formation allows access to small planets 10 km in diameter and if the protoplanetary disk remains relatively circular during the formation of these embryos.

To achieve this result, the simulations had to take better account of the frictional forces of gas in such a disk but in particular the effect of the gravitational field of the dust and gas disk on small celestial bodies. It is this last effect, which cannot be neglected, that tends to protect the stability of the disk from the gravitational perturbations of the second star by limiting the appearance of chaotic instability. Eventually, smaller planets could meet in parts of the disk at such reasonable speeds that the collision would result in a larger object.

How are planets like Tatooine born in three-sun systems

Article by Emma Hollin Posted on September 07, 2020

Space shelters contain many micro-displays such as violent events. This is evidenced by the observations made with VLT And Alma is going behind the scenes of the birth of planets around a multiple system.

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Although the network of orbits that make up our solar system is not completely flat, we have to realize that it is reasonable to imagine their planets as orbiting the sun on the surface of a disk (or plate). However, this is not always the case in other systems, especially those withseveral stars. Thus, the researchers were able to observe that the young GW Orionis, a trio of stars located more than 1,300 light-years away, was surrounded by a fragmented protoplanetary disk, forming distinct rings with opposite directions.

rupture of the primary planetary disk

« We found that the three stars do not rotate on the same plane but that their orbits are not aligned with respect to each other and with respect to the disk. “,” Alison Young’s comments, a member of the team behind the discovery. Thanks Feedback very large telescope (VLT) fromwho – which and the Alma antenna network in the Atacama, but also thanks to computer modeling, the researchers were able to confirm the hypothesis Disc rupture effect. : The opposing gravitational forces of stars will eventually participate in the swelling and fracturing of the protoplanetary disk that surrounds them.

« Our images revealed an extreme case, where the disc is not flat at all, but is deformed and has a dislocated ring, which has detached from the disc. ”, explains Stefan Krause, ProfessorAstrophysics at the University of Exeter, the lead author of The study published in the journal Sciences. The secondary disk, closest to the stars, is made up of the equivalent of 30 . masses Earth’s dust, which researchers believe could form new planets. ” Any planet formed within this squiggly disk would orbit the stars in a perfectly tilted orbit. With more than 50% of systems containing two or more stars, researchers believe they will discover other similar planets in the future, formed on inclined planes from a broken main disk.

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