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Oxide reduction in organic chemistry


the Redox reactions It is of great importance in organic chemistry. However, the structure of the compounds makes the approach very different from what is observed in inorganic chemistry or in electrochemistry, in particular because the principles of redox reduction deal instead, in these last two cases, with ionic compounds; chemical bonds in a structure organic (Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry concerned with the description and study of a large section…) It is mainly covalent, so organic redox reactions do not exhibit electron transfer in sense (SENS (Neglected Engineering Aging Strategies) is a science project that aims to…) electrochemical term.

Determine the oxidation number

You can specify the oxidation state of a corn (atom (from Greek ατομος, atom, “one cannot…) by her account oxidation number. The higher it is, the more filescorn Maize (Ancient Greek ἄτομος [atomos]” that…) east oxide.

The sum of the oxidation numbers of the molecule is equal to Cost (The payload represents what it actually is…) total moleculethat’s to say zero (the number zero (from Italian zero, derived from Arabic zero, …) In most cases in organic chemistry (Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry concerned with the scientific study of…) (neutral molecules). oxidation number carbon (Carbon is a chemical element from the family of crystalline substances, symbol C, …) It is he who is determined, therefore carbon is taken as the “reference”: the oxidation number of other atoms is positive when the atom is less electronegative than carbon, and vice versa. Thus, except in special cases, thehydrogen (Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.) has an oxidation number of +1,oxygen (Oxygen is a chemical element of the chalcogen family, from …) -2,nitrogen (Nitrogen is a chemical element from the pnictogens family, symbol N and …) -3, halogens -1.

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In the examples below are the oxidation numbers used in the calculation red (Red responds to different definitions, depending on which color scheme we’re doing…) The result is in green (Green is a complementary color corresponding to light that has a wavelength…). In the case of ethane, the six hydrogen atoms give a sum (The total is a whole quality, no exceptions. From an accounting point of view, a…) of +6 which leads to calculating an oxidation number of –3 for each carbon since 6 x (+1) + 2 x (–3) = 0. In the case of ethylene, we get an oxidation number of –2 for two carbon atoms and -1 for theacetylene (Acetylene (called ethene by IUPAC nomenclature) is…). According to these accounts, a Alkene (Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons, characterized by a double …) So it is an oxidized form of alkane (Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons, i.e. they are not…) and an alkyne, which is an oxidized form of an alkene. In the same way, alcohols (methanol below), aldehydes (formaldehyde) and carboxylic acids (formic acid) can be classified in ascending order of oxidation.

Is epoxide an oxidized form of an alkene? By comparing ethylene andoxide (An oxide is a compound of oxygen with a minus element…) Of ethylene (below), the answer is yes. On the other hand, thesour (An acid is a chemical compound that is generally defined by its reactions…) formic f formyl chloride I have the same degree (The word degree has many meanings, it is used especially in fields…) from oxidation.

Other examples

border : This method is not applicable when the carbon atoms are severe Different (In mathematics, divergence is defined in the algebraic theory of …) Unless you consider a molecule as an assembly of several independent fragments.

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Based on this method, we have:

  • Oxidation number – 4 for alkanes
  • Oxidation number – 2 for alkenes, alcohols, alkyl halides, and amines
  • Oxidation number 0 for alkenes, ketones, aldehydes, and conjugated diols
  • oxidation number + 2 for carboxylic acids, amides, chloroform (Chloroform or trichloromethane is an organochlorine chemical compound with the formula …)
  • oxidation number + 4 l Carbon Dioxide (Carbon dioxide, commonly known as carbon dioxide or carbon dioxide, is …) and the Tetrachloromethane (tetrachloromethane or carbon tetrachloride is a chemical compound …)

Redox Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry

Organic discounts

There are different mechanisms for organic reductions:

  • Direct transfer through a First reduction electron (An electron is an elementary particle of the lepton family, and it has a charge…) Like lowering birch for example
  • Hydride transfer with aluminum hydride example lithium (Lithium is a chemical element, symbol Li and atomic number 3.)
  • Reduction by hydrogen with a catalyst (In chemistry, a catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction; …) such as the Lindlar catalyst or the Adkins catalyst.
  • A disproportionate reaction such as the Cannizzaro reaction.

Some reductions in which only a change in the oxidation state is observed, such as the Wolf-Kishner reaction, are not involved in any reduction reaction mechanism.

organic oxidation

There are different mechanisms of organic oxidation:

  • Single electron transfer
  • Oxidation of the ester is intermediate with chromic acid manganese dioxide (Manganese (IV) oxide MnO2 is a chemical compound also known as carbon dioxide…).
  • Hydrogen atom transfer in the halogen radical.
  • oxidation with oxygen (combustion)
  • Oxidation with ozone in ozone and peroxide processes.
  • Oxidation by a removal mechanism such as that of Swern and Kornblum and with reagents such asIBX acid and the a period to Des Martin.
  • oxidation by Fremi salt modify or TEMPO
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